QUALI SONO I PRINCIPALI DANNI PROVOCATI DAL FUMO?

By 19 Luglio 2016 Approfondimenti, ITA

I forti fumatori devono rassegnarsi con il tempo ad avere un sorriso…senza denti!! (Journal of Periodontology)

La bocca è la porta d’ingresso del fumo e qui esso causa numerosi danni, spesso sottovalutati o addirittura sconosciuti, non risparmiando nessuna parte della bocca, dallo smalto dei denti ai materiali di otturazione, dalle gengive agli impianti dentari, dall’alito alla pelle del viso.
Scopriamoli insieme!

SMALTO:
Formazione di macchie e colorazioni, dal colore giallo al marrone, sia su denti naturali che sui denti protesizzati e restaurati, sulle otturazioni estetiche.
Aumento della formazione e del deposito di tartaro (placca batterica calcificata) sui denti. Le superfici dentarie, rese così ruvide, richiamano altra placca, provocando l’aumento di carie e infiammazioni gengivali.
Anche fumare la pipa causa l’usura dei bordi dei denti frontali, per via del ripetuto traumatismo sui bordi degli incisivi.

GENGIVE
Il fumo di sigaretta diminuisce l’ossigeno presente nelle gengive. In un ambiente con poco ossigeno sopravvivono solo i batteri più aggressivi presenti nella placca, responsabili delle forme più gravi di parodontite, ancora definita impropriamente “piorrea”. I risultati sono aumento della mobilità dentaria, ritiro delle gengive e precoce perdita dei denti, che nei forti fumatori è ben 3 volte più probabile che nei non-fumatori.

GUARIGIONE DELLE FERITE CHIRURGICHE
Il fumo di tabacco peggiora e rallenta la guarigione delle ferite in seguito a interventi di chirurgia. Il fumo oltre a influenzare negativamente la difese (immunoglobuline e cellule immunitarie) riduce la percentuale di ossigeno nel sangue e quindi la ridotta ossigenazione dei tessuti anche di quelli orali alterando i processi di guarigione. Le alveoliti post-estrattive (infezioni dell’osso dopo un estrazione dentaria) sono quattro volte più frequenti nei fumatori rispetto ai non fumatori.

IMPIANTI DENTARI
Il fumo di tabacco peggiora e rallenta la guarigione delle ferite in seguito a interventi di chirurgia orale. In particolare in implantologia l'abitudine al fumo aumenta da 2,3 a 5,8 volte il rischio di un insuccesso implantare e aumenta da 3,6 a 4,6 volte il rischio di ammalarsi di perimplantite rispetto ai non fumatori.

ALITO
Il tabacco provoca una forte e sgradevole alitosi, avvertibile facilmente quando il paziente si siede sulla poltrona odontoiatrica. La costante preoccupazione dell’alito cattivo induce il fumatore ad eccedere nel consumo di mentine e chewing-gum, che aggravano le erosioni dello smalto a causa del loro contenuto in zucchero e/o acido citrico.

I NOSTRI BAMBINI
I bambini con gravi difetti congeniti, come la labio-palatoschisi, hanno madri che hanno fumato in gravidanza.
I figli dei fumatori hanno una maggiore probabilità di sviluppare carie in età precoce e di digrignare i denti di notte.

MALATTIE DELLE MUCOSE
Leucoplachia: è una lesione caratterizzata da macchie bianche situate su guance e lingua, a volte accompagnata da zone rosse. E’ una lesione potenzialente maligna e quindi va fatta assolutamente controllare dal proprio dentista.
Candidosi: è un’infezione fungina solitamente caratteristica di chi ha un sistema immunitario poco efficiente (bambini, anziani, diabetici, immunodepressi…). Si presenta con macchie bianche che, se spatolate, solitamente sono asportabili. Il fumo abbassa le difese immunitarie rendendo quindi il fumatore più soggetto a varie infezioni, oltre a quella candidosica.

TUMORE AL CAVO ORALE
E’ ormai noto che il tabacco in tutte le sue forme causa cancro orale. Oltre l’80 % circa di tutti i carcinomi orali è attribuibile all’uso di tabacco. Il cancro orale include quello del labbro, della lingua, della gengiva, delle mucose della bocca, dell’oro-faringe (parte iniziale della gola). Tale associazione fra cancro orale e tabacco è strettamente dipendente dalla dose, dalla durata dell’esposizione e dalla modalità di esposizione. Di contro, l’abbandono dell’utilizzo di tabacco si associa a una progressiva riduzione del rischio. L’associazione con il consumo di alcol aumenta considerevolmente il rischio. Anche il fumo passivo aumenta il rischio del 63%.

LO SAPEVI CHE…?
Secondo alcuni ricercatori è presente una forte correlazione tra malattie cardio-vascolari e parodontali. I batteri gengivali producono molecole infiammatorie che partecipano alla formazione di placche aterosclerotiche, a loro volta causa di ictus e infarti.
L’utilizzo di tabacco in tutte le sue forme comporta una riduzione/alterazione graduale del senso del gusto e dell'olfatto, con le ovvie conseguenze negative nella degustazione dei cibi e delle bevande.
Il fumo è un fattore di rischio anche per le apnee del sonno, patologia che determina numerosi micro-risvegli durante la notte, diminuendo drasticamente la qualità del riposo, con tutte le relative conseguenze negative sulla salute.
Il ruolo del tuo dentista può essere cruciale nell’accrescere la consapevolezza dei rischi per la tua salute orale associati al consumo di tabacco. Lasciati condurre verso il progressivo allontanamento da questo inesorabile “nemico”, salva il tuo sorriso!

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